The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates the safety, efficacy, and quality of pharmaceutical drugs sold in the United States.

New Drug Approval Process
Before a new drug can be marketed in the United States, it must undergo a rigorous review and approval process by the FDA. This process typically involves preclinical studies, clinical trials in humans to assess safety and efficacy, and submission of a New Drug Application (NDA) or Biologics License Application (BLA) to the FDA for review.

Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)
Drug manufacturers are required to adhere to the FDA’s Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP) regulations to ensure the quality, purity, strength, and consistency of their products. GMP regulations cover all aspects of drug manufacturing, including facilities, equipment, personnel, processes, and quality control.

Labeling Requirements
The FDA regulates the labeling of prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) drug products to ensure that they provide accurate and truthful information to healthcare professionals and consumers. Drug labels must include essential information such as the drug’s active ingredients, indications for use, dosage and administration instructions, warnings, precautions, contraindications, and adverse reactions.

Drug Safety Monitoring
The FDA monitors the safety of drugs throughout their lifecycle through various mechanisms, including adverse event reporting, post-market surveillance studies, and risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS). The agency may require drug manufacturers to conduct additional safety studies or implement safety labeling changes based on emerging safety concerns.

Generic Drug Approval
Generic drugs are required to demonstrate bioequivalence to their brand-name counterparts to obtain FDA approval. The FDA’s Abbreviated New Drug Application (ANDA) process allows generic drug manufacturers to rely on the safety and efficacy data of the reference listed drug (RLD) and submit evidence of bioequivalence to support their application.

Drug Advertising and Promotion
The FDA regulates the advertising and promotion of prescription drugs to ensure that they are truthful, balanced, and not misleading. Prescription drug advertising must include important safety information and present a fair balance between the benefits and risks of the drug.

Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS)
REMS are required for certain drugs with known or potential serious risks to ensure that the benefits of the drug outweigh its risks. REMS may include elements such as medication guides, communication plans, restricted distribution programs, and healthcare provider education.

Imported Drugs
Imported drugs are subject to the same regulatory requirements as domestically produced drugs. Importers are responsible for ensuring that imported drugs comply with FDA regulations and are manufactured, labeled, and stored according to GMP standards.